Ubomi bezenzululwazi: indalo engqongileyo kunye nempilo yabantu

Ukutshatyalaliswa kwemekobume yendalo ngezinto zendalo kunokubangela umonakalo omkhulu kubomi babantu kunye nempahla, kunye nokuqhambuka kwezifo. Nangona kunjalo, ukutshatyalaliswa kwemekobume ye-ikholoji yimiba yendalo ihlala ineempawu ezicacileyo zengingqi, kwaye ukuphindaphinda kokwenzeka kuphantsi. Imiba yabantu efana nokungcoliseka kwendalo iyonakalisa kakhulu inkqubo yendalo yomntu. Inokubangela izikali ezahlukahlukeneyo zeziganeko ezinobuthi ezibukhali kunye nezingapheliyo, ukwandisa izehlo zomhlaza kuluntu, kwaye zibe nefuthe elibi kuphuhliso kunye nempilo yezizukulwana ezizayo. Ungcoliseko lokusingqongileyo alunamida yelizwe lokutshabalalisa i-ecology. Ayichaphazeli ilizwe layo kuphela, kodwa inokuba nefuthe kubume bendalo behlabathi.

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1. Imiba eshushu kungcoliseko lokusingqongileyo

(1) Ungcoliseko lomoya

1. Ukufudumala kwehlabathi kunye nempilo yabantu

Ukufudumala kwemozulu kuye kwandisa ukwanda kwezifo ezithile ezisasazwa ngamagciwane ebhayoloji nakwimimandla ekweleenjiko, njengesifo seengcongconi, i<em>dengue fever, imvula eshushu etyheli, i<em>vermicelli, i<em>encephalitis yaseJapan, imasisi, njalo njalo. ufudukele kwiindawo ezibandayo. Ulwandiso.

2. Ukutshatyalaliswa kwe-ozone kunye nempilo yabantu

Indima yomaleko we-ozone: iimolekyuli zeoksijini zikhanyiswa yimitha yelanga eyomeleleyo, ngakumbi imisebe ye-ultraviolet yamaza amafutshane ukuvelisa i-ozone. Ngokwahlukileyo koko, iozone inokufunxa imitha ye<em>ultraviolet enobude obungaphantsi kweenanometers ezingama-340, ize ibolise iozone ibe ziiathom zeoksijini neemolekyuli zeoksijini, ukuze i<em>ozone ekumaleko we<em>ozone isoloko igcina ulungelelwano oluguquguqukayo. I-ozone layer inokufunxa uninzi lwemitha ye-ultraviolet yamaza amafutshane eyingozi kwimitha yelanga kwaye ichaphazela ubomi bomntu kunye nokuphila. Ngokutsho kophando, kwi-1% nganye yokunciphisa i-O3 kwi-ozone layer, izehlo ze-squamous cell carcinoma kubemi zinokunyuka nge-2% ukuya kwi-3%, kwaye izigulane zomhlaza wolusu ziya kwanda nge-2%. Isalathisi sokugula kwezifo zokuphefumula kunye nokuvuvukala kwamehlo kuya kwanda kubantu abakwiindawo ezingcolileyo. Ekubeni isiseko se-DNA ye-genetic ye-genetics yazo zonke izinto eziphilayo zithinteka kwimisebe ye-ultraviolet, ukutshatyalaliswa kwe-ozone layer kuya kuchaphazela kakhulu ukuveliswa kunye nokuveliswa kwezilwanyana kunye nezityalo.

3. Ungcoliseko lwe-nitrogen oxide kunye nempilo yabantu

I-nitric oxide, i-nitrogen dioxide kunye nezinye i-nitrogen oxides zingcoliseko zomoya eziqhelekileyo, ezinokuvuselela izitho zokuphefumla, zibangele ityhefu ebukhali kunye nengapheliyo, kwaye zichaphazela kwaye zibeke engozini impilo yabantu.

4. Ungcoliseko lweSulfur dioxide kunye nempilo yabantu

Umonakalo wesulfure dioxide emzimbeni womntu:

(1) Ukucaphukisa kwindlela yokuphefumla. I-sulphur dioxide inyibilika lula emanzini. Xa idlula kwi-nasal cavity, i-trachea, kunye ne-bronchi, ininzi ifakwe kwaye igcinwe yi-membrane yangaphakathi ye-lumen, ijika ibe yi-asidi ye-sulfurous, i-asidi ye-sulfuric kunye ne-sulfate, eyandisa umphumo ovuselelayo.

(2) Ityhefu edityanisiweyo ye-sulphur dioxide kunye ne-particle enqunyiweyo. I-Sulfur dioxide kunye ne-particle enqunyiweyo ingena emzimbeni womntu kunye. Iincinci ze-aerosol zinokuthwala i-sulfur dioxide kwimiphunga enzulu, ukwandisa ubutyhefu ngamaxesha angama-3-4. Ukongezelela, xa iinqununu ezinqunyanyisiweyo ziqulethe izinto zetsimbi ezifana ne-iron trioxide, inokubangela i-oxidation ye-sulfure dioxide ibe yinkungu ye-asidi, ebhengezwa kumphezulu weengqungquthela kwaye ifakwe kwindawo enzulu yendlela yokuphefumula. Impembelelo evuselelayo yenkungu ye-sulfuric acid imalunga namaxesha angama-10 anamandla kune-sulfur dioxide.

(3) Isiphumo sokukhuthaza umhlaza wesulfure dioxide. Uvavanyo lwezilwanyana lubonise ukuba i-10 mg / m3 ye-sulphur dioxide inokuphucula iziphumo ze-carcinogen ze-carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (i-Benzo (a) i-pyrene; i-3,4-Benzypyrene). Phantsi kwesiphumo esidityanisiweyo se-sulphur dioxide kunye ne-benzo[a]pyrene, izehlo zomhlaza wemiphunga yezilwanyana ziphezulu kunezo ze-carcinogen enye. Ukongezelela, xa i-sulfur dioxide ingena emzimbeni womntu, iivithamini ezisegazini ziya kudibaniswa nayo, ezibangela ukuba ibhalansi ye-vitamin C emzimbeni ingalingani, ngaloo ndlela ichaphazela imetabolism. I-sulphur dioxide inokunqanda kwaye itshabalalise okanye ivule umsebenzi wee-enzymes ezithile, ibangele ukuphazamiseka kwimetabolism yeswekile kunye neprotheni, ngaloo ndlela ichaphazela ukukhula kunye nophuhliso lomzimba.

5. Ungcoliseko lweCarbon monoxide kunye nempilo yabantu

I-carbon monoxide engena emzimbeni womntu ngomoya inokudibaniswa ne-hemoglobin (Hb) egazini emva kokungena kumjikelezo wegazi nge-alveoli. Ubudlelwane be-carbon monoxide kunye ne-hemoglobin ngama-200-300 amaxesha amakhulu kunomoya we-oksijini kunye ne-hemoglobin. Ngoko ke, xa i-carbon monoxide ihlasela umzimba, iya kwenza ngokukhawuleza i-carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) kunye ne-hemoglobin, ithintele ukudibanisa kwe-oksijini kunye ne-hemoglobin ukwenza i-oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). ), ebangela i-hypoxia yenze ityhefu ye-carbon monoxide. Xa uphefumla i-carbon monoxide nge-concentration ye-0.5%, ixesha elide kwimizuzu engama-20-30, umntu onetyhefu uya kuba ne-pulse ebuthakathaka, ukuphefumla okucothayo, kwaye ekugqibeleni adinwe afe. Olu hlobo lwetyhefu ye-carbon monoxide ebukhali luhlala lusenzeka kwiingozi zeworkshop kunye nokufudumeza ikhaya ngokungazi.

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2. Ungcoliseko lwamagumbi kunye nempilo yabantu

1. Ungcoliseko lwezinto ezinobungozi eziqulethwe kwizinto zokuhombisa izakhiwo: izinto ezahlukeneyo zokwakha ezenziwe ngamaplanga ezinje ngeplywood, ipeyinti, iingubo, izinto zokuncamathelisa, njl.njl. ziya kuqhubeka zikhupha i-formaldehyde. I-formaldehyde yi-cytoplasmic toxicant, enokuthi ifunnwe ngendlela yokuphefumula, i-digestive tract kunye nesikhumba. Inempembelelo eyomeleleyo yokuvuselela eluswini, inokubangela i-coagulation kunye ne-necrosis yeeprotheyini zezicubu, inefuthe elithintelayo kwinkqubo ye-nervous central, kwaye ikwayi-lung carcinogen. Izinyibilikisi ezahlukeneyo kunye nezinto zokuncamathelisa ezisetyenziswa ekuhombiseni zinokubangela ukungcoliseka kwezinto eziphilayo eziguquguqukayo ezifana nebenzene, toluene, xylene, kunye ne-trichlorethylene.

2. Ungcoliseko lwekhitshi: Xa kuphekwa kwaye kutshiswa, i-fuel ezahlukeneyo zitshiswa ngokungaphelelanga phantsi kwemeko yokungabikho kweoksijini eyaneleyo, kwaye inani elikhulu le-polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons iveliswa. I-hydrocarbons enevumba elimnandi ipholima ngokuthe ngcembe okanye ibhayisekile kuma-400℃~800, kunye nebenzo eyenziwe[α] I-Pyrene yi-carcinogen eyomeleleyo. Ngexesha lokupheka, ioli yokupheka ibola kwiqondo lokushisa eliphezulu le-270, kwaye umsi wayo unepolycyclic inevumba elimnandi lehydrocarbons njengebenzo[α]pyrene kunye nebenzanthracene. Ioyile yokupheka, kunye nokutya okufana nentlanzi kunye nenyama, inokuvelisa iihydrocarbons kumaqondo obushushu aphezulu. , Aldehydes, carboxylic acids, heterocyclic amines kunye neentlobo ezingaphezu kwama-200 zezinto, ubutyhefu bazo bofuzo bungaphezulu kakhulu kunebenzo[α]pyrene.

3. I-Hydrogen sulfide kunye ne-methyl mercaptan ekhutshwa kwizindlu zangasese kunye nemijelo ehambisa amanzi amdaka nayo inokubangela ukusabela kwetyhefu engapheliyo.

4. Ungcoliseko lwezithambiso, iikhemikhali zemihla ngemihla kunye neemveliso zekhemikhali.

5. Ungcoliseko “lwenkungu ye-elektroniki”: Izilungisi zomoya, oomabonakude bemibala, iikhompyutha, iifriji, iikopi, iifowuni eziphathwayo, ii-walkie-talkies kunye nezinye iimveliso zombane zivelisa amaza ombane-”inkungu ye-elektroniki” ukuya kumanqanaba ahlukeneyo ngexesha lokusetyenziswa. “Inkungu ye-elektroniki” inokubangela intloko ebuhlungu, ukudinwa, ukuphakuzela, ukungalali kakuhle, kwaye kuchaphazele ukukhula kwabantwana.

 


Ixesha lokuposa: Oct-15-2021