“Izikhokelo zoMgangatho woMoya weHlabathi”

NgoSeptemba 22, 2021, uMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi (i-WHO) wakhupha "Izikhokelo zoMgangatho woMoya wehlabathi" (Izikhokelo zoMgangatho woMoya weGlobal), okokuqala ukususela ngo-2005 ukuqinisa izikhokelo zomgangatho womoya, ngethemba lokukhuthaza amazwe ukuba atshintshe ukucoca. amandla. Thintela ukufa kunye nezifo ezibangelwa kungcoliseko lomoya.

Ngokutsho kwale ngxelo, ungcoliso ekujoliswe kulo lukhokelo olutsha luquka i<em>particle kunye nenitrogen dioxide, zombini ezi zinto zifumaneka kwilahleko ekhutshwa yifosili yaye zinokusindisa “izigidi zabantu.”

Ngokutsho koqikelelo lweWorld Health Organization, ungcoliseko lomoya lubangela ubuncinane abantu abazizigidi ezisi-7 bafe ngaphambi kwexesha nyaka ngamnye. UMlawuli-Jikelele we-WHO uTan Desai wathi kwinkomfa yoonondaba ukuba uhlolisiso luye lwabonisa ukuba kwanokuba umlinganiselo wongcoliso lomoya uphantsi, “ungcoliseko lomoya luya kuchaphazela onke amalungu omzimba, ukususela ebuchotsheni ukusa kusana olusakhulayo olusesibelekweni sikanina.”

UMbutho Wehlabathi Wezempilo unethemba lokuba ezi zilungiso ziza kukhuthaza amazwe angamalungu ali-194 ukuba athabathe inyathelo lokunciphisa ukukhutshwa kwepetroli, ekwangomnye woonobangela bokutshintsha kwemozulu. Kwihlabathi jikelele, amazwe aphantsi koxinzelelo lokuzibophelela kwizicwangciso ezikhaliphileyo zokunciphisa ukukhutshwa kwenkunkuma phambi kweNkomfa yeMozulu yeZizwe eziManyeneyo eGlasgow, eSkotlani, ngoNovemba.

Izazinzulu ziyazamkela ezi zikhokelo zitsha, kodwa zinexhala lokuba, njengoko amazwe amaninzi ehlabathini esilela ukuhlangabezana nemigangatho emidala nengqongqo, amanye amazwe aya kudibana nobunzima ekuyiphumezeni.

Ngokwedatha ye-WHO, ngo-2019, iipesenti ezingama-90 zabantu behlabathi baphefumle umoya othathwe njengongenampilo ngokwezikhokelo zika-2005. Amanye amazwe, afana ne-Indiya, asenayo imigangatho yelizwe exengaxengayo kunesindululo sika-2005.

Imigangatho ye-EU iphezulu kakhulu kuneengcebiso ze-WHO zangaphambili. Amanye amazwe asilele ukugcina amanqanaba awo onyaka wongcoliseko ngaphakathi kwemida esemthethweni ngo-2020, ngaphandle kokuvalwa koshishino kunye nokuthutha ngenxa yesibetho esitsha sesithsaba.

Iingcali zithi iinzame zokulawula ungcoliseko ngokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kwamafutha efosili ziya kuzisa iingenelo eziphindwe kabini, ukuphucula impilo yoluntu kunye nokunciphisa ukukhutshwa kwegesi okubangela ukufudumala kwemozulu.

"Aba babini bayazalana ngokusondeleyo." utshilo uKurt Streff, owayesakuba yisazinzulu kwi-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngoMhlaza woMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi (i-WHO) kunye nonjingalwazi otyeleleyo nokwangumlawuli weBoston College Global Pollution Observation Centre, “nangona ukuphunyezwa kulucelomngeni kakhulu. Ukwabelana ngesondo, kodwa eli ikwalithuba lakanye ebomini kwinkqubo yokubuyisela emva kwesibetho esitsha sesithsaba. ”

Izikhokelo ezitsha zinciphisa ngesiqingatha umgangatho we-PM2.5 woMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi. I-PM2.5 ibhekiselele kumasuntswana amancinci kune-2.5 microns, engaphantsi kwe-130 ububanzi beenwele zomntu. Incinci ngokwaneleyo ukuba ingene nzulu kwimiphunga kwaye ingene nakwigazi. Ngokomda omtsha, i-avareji yomndilili wonyaka we-PM2.5 akufanele ube phezulu kune-5 micrograms/m3.

Isiphakamiso esidala sanciphisa umyinge wonyaka ophezulu ukuya kwi-10. Kodwa izazinzulu ziye zafumanisa ukuba ukubonakaliswa kwexesha elide kwindawo ephantsi yoxinaniso kunokubangela isifo se-cardiopulmonary, i-stroke kunye nezinye iziphumo ezibi zempilo.

Abo bachaphazeleka kakhulu ngabo bahlala kumazwe anengeniso ephantsi kunye nephakathi axhomekeke ekutshisweni kwamafutha efosili ukuze avelise umbane.
UJonathan Grieg, ugqirha wabantwana nomphandi kwiYunivesithi iQueen Mary yaseLondon, wathi: “Ubungqina bucacile bokuba abantu abangamahlwempu nabantu abakumgangatho ophantsi baya kufumana imitha engakumbi ngenxa yendawo abahlala kuyo.” Uthe jikelele. Ngokufutshane, le mibutho ikhupha ungcoliseko oluncinci, kodwa ijongene neziphumo ezininzi.

Uthe ukuthotyelwa kwezikhokelo ezitsha akukwazi nje ukuphucula impilo yonke, kodwa nokunciphisa ukungalingani kwezempilo.

Xa yayibhengeza imigaqo emitsha, iWHO yathi “ukuba umgangatho wangoku wongcoliseko lomoya uyancitshiswa, phantse ama-80 ekhulwini abantu abafayo ehlabathini okunxulumene nePM2.5 banokuphetshwa.”
Kwisiqingatha sokuqala salo nyaka, i-avareji yezinga le-PM2.5 e-China yayiyi-34 micrograms nge-cubic meter nganye, kwaye inani lase-Beijing lalingama-41, ngokufanayo nonyaka ophelileyo.

UAidan Farrow, isazinzulu samazwe ngamazwe songcoliseko lomoya kwiYunivesithi yaseGreenpeace yase-Exeter e-UK, wathi: “Eyona nto ibalulekileyo kukuba urhulumente uyayisebenzisa kusini na imigaqo-nkqubo enempembelelo yokunciphisa ukukhutshwa kwezinto ezingcolisa umoya, njengokunqanda amalahle, ioli negesi yendalo. Utyalo-mali, kwaye sibeke phambili inguqu kumandla acocekileyo.”


Ixesha lokuposa: Sep-29-2021